Friday, August 28, 2020

Four Wives Essay Research Paper Four WivesThere free essay sample

Four Wifes. Exposition, Research Paper Four Wifes There was a rich merchandiser of India who had 4 hitched womans ( when they used to make such things. ) He cherished the fourth hitched lady the most. He enhanced her with rich robes and rewarded her to daintinesss. He took incredible consideration of her and gave her nil be that as it may, the best. He other than cherished his third hitched lady extremely much. He was extremely pleased with her and ever needed to demo her off to his companions. In any case, the merchandiser was ever in incredible dismay that she might flee with some other grown-up male. He, exorbitantly, cherished his second hitched lady. She was an extremely obliging individual, ever quiet and the merchandiser # 8217 ; s partner. At whatever point the merchandiser confronted a few employments, he at any point turned to his second wedded lady and she could ever help him out and flood him through difficult situations. Presently, the merchandiser # 8217 ; s first wedded lady was an extremely steadfast companion and made extraordinary parts in keeping his riches and concern, each piece great as taking consideration of the family. We will compose a custom exposition test on Four Wives Essay Research Paper Four WivesThere or then again any comparable subject explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page Notwithstanding, the merchandiser did non love the primary wedded lady and despite the fact that she adored him significantly, he scarcely paid heed to her. One twenty-four hours, the merchandiser became sick. After a short time, he realized that he was making a trip to perish in a matter of seconds. He thought of his luxurious life and let himself know, # 8220 ; Now, I have 4 hitched womans with me. However, when I bite the dust, I # 8217 ; ll be altogether. How forlorn I # 8217 ; ll be! # 8221 ; In this manner, he asked the fourth hitched lady, # 8220 ; I cherished you most, enriched you with the best vesture and showered incredible consideration over you. Presently that I # 8217 ; m perishing, will you tail me and keep up me organization? # 8221 ; # 8220 ; No way! # 8221 ; answered the fourth hitched lady and she strolled off without another word. The answer cut like a fresh blade directly into the merchandiser # 8217 ; s chest. The miserable merchandiser so asked the third hitched lady, # 8220 ; I have adored you so much for my entire life. Presently that I # 8217 ; m perishing, will you follow me and keep up me organization? # 8221 ; # 8220 ; No! # 8221 ; answered the third hitched lady. # 8220 ; Life is so acceptable here! I # 8217 ; m venturing out to remarry when you kick the bucket! # 8221 ; The merchandiser # 8217 ; s chest sank also, turned virus. He so asked the second hitched lady, # 8220 ; I # 8217 ; ve ever gone to you for help and you # 8217 ; ve ever gotten me out. Presently I need your guide again. When I bite the dust, will you tail me and keep up me organization? # 8221 ; # 8220 ; I # 8217 ; m sorry, I can # 8217 ; t help you out this clasp! # 8221 ; answered the second hitched lady. # 8220 ; At the extremely most, I can only direct you to your grave. # 8221 ; The answer came like an electrical jolt and the merchandiser was crushed. At that point a voice got out: # 8220 ; I # 8217 ; ll leave with you. I # 8217 ; ll follow you, no undertaking where you go. # 8221 ; The merchandiser gazed upward and there was his previously hitched lady. She was so scraggy, about like she experienced ailing health. Extraordinarily lamented, the merchandiser stated, # 8220 ; I should hold taken much better consideration of you while I could hold! # 8221 ; All things considered, we as a whole have 4 hitched womans in our lives. The fourth hitched lady is our natural structure. No undertaking how much clasp and endeavor we rich in doing it look great, it # 8217 ; ll leave us when we bite the dust. Our third hitched lady? Our possessions, position and riches. At the point when we dice, they all go to other people. The second hitched lady is our family unit and companions. No undertaking how close they have been for us when we # 8217 ; re alive, the farthest they can stay by us is up to the grave. The first hitched lady is our mind, often disregarded in our pursuit of stuff riches and creature pleasance. Think what? It is actually the solitary 1 that tails us any place we go. Conceivably ( only potentially ) it # 8217 ; s a decent idea to develop and meat up it now rather than to hold up until we # 8217 ; re on our deathbed, keening.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Eculturation and Cognition of Children Research Paper

Eculturation and Cognition of Children - Research Paper Example Learning of culture in any network or society happens at a beginning time when a youngster is conceived and may proceed all through the lifetime of the person. Consequently, the part of learning and utilizing key parts of a specific culture establish a procedure to a person, which anthropologists have named as enculturation. Along these lines, this exploration paper will investigate the idea of enculturation and how it effect or impact the comprehension procedure of youngsters. Research procedure to be used will generally comprise subjective research strategies. Optional information will be depended upon in creating valuable data for this investigation and solid library books, electronic books, diaries and helpful sites will be used. Enculturation and Cognition of Children Talcott Parsons, one of the credited researchers in the field of human science is associated with taking note of that new age of youngsters being conceived are because of a procedure known as ‘recurrent savag e invasion’ (Grunlan and Mayers,1988, p.77). The researcher proceeded to clarify this idea by expressing that kids being naturally introduced to this world don't have culture of their own. ... As they enter the world, the kids gradually are relied upon to live and adapt inside the diverse social setting they end up in and to do this they require to receive certain and explicit social viewpoints. Along these lines, such youngsters need to experience a procedure of procuring these social angles and it is this procedure anthropologists have named as enculturation while sociologists have named it as socialization (Grunlan and Mayers, 1988). What is enculturation? The idea of enculturation was begun by an anthropologist known as J.M. Herskovits. In an insightful work distributed in 1948 and titled ‘Man and his Works, the Science of Cultural Anthropology’, Herskovits characterizes and depicts enculturation as â€Å"the parts of the learning experience that separate man from different animals and by methods for which he accepts ability in his culture† (refered to in Somani and University of Maryland, 2008, p.15). Herskovits went further to elucidate this defin ition by expressing that, enculturation comprise a procedure that is described by cognizant and oblivious molding that is done by a specific society’s set traditions limits. As this procedure happens, Herskovits sees that separated from accomplishing all changes in accordance with social living, there is additionally deduction of a wide range of fulfillment that comprise some portion of social encounters and much of the time are accomplished from singular articulation and not from relationship with others in the gathering (Somani and University of Maryland, 2008). As a technique, Herskovits fight that all people in a single manner or the other need to experience the procedure of enculturation all together for such people to fit well and become individuals from a specific culture. As indicated by the essayist, the

Friday, August 21, 2020

Apologies on Academic Changes

It would be ideal if you get a lot of expressions of remorse for my late answer in regards to scholarly changes. I have just been conceded at UCSD's Economics undergrad and restored my picked classes structure. In any case, I as of late rolled out certain improvements on my group choices.Contained in this letter is new arrangements of subjects and ways on how I will in any case spread earlier picked classes, and a solicitation on how I ought to continue. I have just picked new subjects for the Fall, Winter and Summer scholarly quarters. All the courses contained in my new determination are appeared in the college's catalog.I will take a few classes that I dropped from my rundown from the online program. In the forthcoming fall quarter, I intend to take Econ 9, 25, and CIS 15A. I will take the remainder of courses from either Foothill College or another network college.I have been searching for course offering in these universities and ha found that they are on the whole accessible. T his is all in the endeavors to ensure I get my A.A Degree in 2009. Further, I will be taking Math 11 and 12 at UCSD, which fills the need of the necessary Calculus for Business and Economics. I will likewise be taking the Math 1C, which you had asked, in this Summer 2008.Having taken and performed well in other online classes is a decent sign that I will perform well in the just referenced courses. This is on the grounds that I have picked up the much significant autonomous hard working attitude that is required in such classes. I have just conversed with my scholarly advocate on this circumstance perusing my scholastic plans. The guide has affirmed that free and online courses are accessible for the previously mentioned programs.This gives me certainty to progress in the direction of turning away the emergency. Will generously give my guide's contacts so you can impart when need emerges. This will be in the endeavors of guaranteeing that my investigations to ensure that my graduati on of scholarly standing stand unaffected. I have made the purpose of planning the courses in order to have enough time portion for each course. This will guarantee most extreme utilization of time past the desire for your office.I have just met all the IGETC financial significant necessities, implying that I simply need to deal with different prerequisites so as to graduate on schedule. Having met these key prerequisites leaves me with sufficient opportunity to use in the classes recorded above.In expansion, I guarantee to work during the time spent accomplishing the objective of meeting University necessities, performing admirably in my classes, just as graduating on schedule. Meanwhile, I am setting myself up for the scholarly test that lays in front of me and I am certain about performing admirably and graduating on schedule. In spite of my arrangements on this issue, I am compassionately requesting your direction in transit I should push ahead. I have almost certainly that your office will comprehend my situation.I will try consistently visiting and speaking with your office so as to keep you refreshed on my advancement. Will likewise have my advisor speak with your office in regards to my arrangements and refreshed conditional arrangement. I profoundly value your time and the endeavors you have gained to guarantee my scholarly ground stays on course.With Thanks,

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Definitions of Hiset Essay Writing Samples

Definitions of Hiset Essay Writing Samples A Startling Fact about Hiset Essay Writing Samples Uncovered The simplest way to decide on the sort of an essay is to realize the writer's point of view. Becoming a terrific writer is basically a years-long procedure. Just as vital as being in a position to communicate ideas, is demonstrating you have a command of the English language at least enough where you're able to distinguish the kinds of writing and put them in the most suitable connotation. If you observe the particular example through, it's simpler for the reader to learn what you mean. Banking essays can be real fun to play with if you've got a comprehensive understanding about the discipline and have keen interest in writing, so should you think that you cannot write decent banking essays than again you're erroneous. Do not seem through the topics before you opt for. If you successfully determine the objective of language essay than you ought to be sure the subject of lan guage essay should fit in the objective. Looking at ielts essay topics with answers is an excellent method that will help you to get ready for the test. Math answers are provided for internet tutorials too. This sample essays demonstrate the forms of questions that you will face and the way to structure your essays properly. You don't need to be perfect, but you need in order to answer the question in essay form. After having a topic to work on, it is crucial to check if it's in accordance with the use of the essay. The initial and the vital step in essay writing is definitely picking a topic is effective. The Dirty Truth on Hiset Essay Writing Samples Keep in mind that you're NOT writing your opinion on the subject. To sum up, the statement isn't logical since there are a few errors in it. You'll be permitted to use both anecdotal evidence, together with the info supplied to you by the reading. You display a specific subject. Essay writing examples in doc format like the ones given may help steer you in writing an excellent composition. Therefore, should you feel skeptical in regards to any sort of writing, don't be scared. The thesis shall be in agreement with the commitme nt PhD. Essay writing skills is a hard and time-consuming job. When it's difficult to compose an essay in 45 minutes, begin by taking more time. Auditory memory is very important to strengthen, even for adults, so be certain to take the moment, even if its just a couple of minutes per day, to work on your auditory memory, since it will also help you build the remainder of your memory also. If you would like to deliver top-notch pieces, now is the time to find wellwritten samples to direct you through the entire writing process. Taking a couple of minutes at the start to structure your essay can help you save you valuable writing time later. Hiset Essay Writing Samples The company letter ought to be written in block style. Sample questions offer you many unique benefits in contrast to other approaches. Keep the letter brief and concise, but be certain to include all of the info you will need to communicate. Listed here are the many ways we've designed our site to handle the challenges of crafting excellent papers. The absolute most important consideration when deciding on a writing sample needs to be quality. The writing portion is a great indication of your thoughtfulness for a student and your capacity to recognize personal and professional circumstances and respond accordingly. Of course it wasn't free. Stop by the association women student website, examine the numerous varieties of scholarship awards that are provided,, also check into what sort of degrees and educational options are listed. Hiset Essay Writing Samples Help! Slowing down your mind to really write your intentions down provides that additional edge. Many people struggle to assemble the correct words to earn a coherent piece. It's recommended that you ask your teacher in the very first spot for any sort of queries. It may be better to have just a couple of bad childhood behaviors and explain the method by which they start and the way they become bad adult behaviors. Get th e Scoop on Hiset Essay Writing Samples Before You're Too Late The HiSET Writing exam is very different from its sister subject tests, concerning length. Prepare and practice writing a superb essay necessitates synthesis of material that can't be carried out in the 20 30 minutes you've got during the exam. The totally free HiSET Language Arts Writing practice test is particularly designed to be sure that the test-taker is knowledgeable in regards to the HiSET and has the ability to understand what things to expect when it's time to select the Language Arts Writing part of the HiSET. Our totally free HiSET sample tests offer you a chance to evaluate if you are prepared for the actual HiSET exam.

Friday, May 15, 2020

Essay on What Is The Expression Theory Of Art - 1484 Words

Art has evolved and regenerated itself many times during our human existence. These differences are defined through changes in styles under various theories. During the nineteenth and early twentieth century, a style known as Expressionism became popular. During this movement the artists were trying to use their artwork as a tool of expression toward life. It was mainly dominant in the nonrepresentational arts, such as abstract visual arts and music. It also was probably one of the most difficult movements to understand because the whole point of the piece lay within the artist. Not only was it a movement, it defined the act of art as a whole. From the beginning of time, each work of art, excluding replicas, show a way of expressing†¦show more content†¦For Tolstoy, the value of art comes from the function art serves in society and in human historical development. Art appears in everything that lives and should have the force to bring people together as a community. For him expressionism in art is a means of communication, in such as a language. Therefore, language can be described as a form of art under the theory of expressionism. Speech transmits the thoughts and experiences of mankind, serving as a means of expression among them; art also acts in a similar manner by sharing emotions. If people could not be affected by art, we would still be in the era of savagery. Referring back to the author of our book, John Fisher, emotional communication is essential to art. Fisher also states that too much harnessed emotion will tend to lower the value of art. What can we define as art and what can we exclude? For Tolstoy, a piece to be considered art must surpass a few requirements. First, the piece of work must express deep and unique feeling and emotion. Second, the artist must intentionally produce an external artwork, which transmits feeling and emotions to the audience. Finally, the artwork must portray the same emotions that the author intended. The only one of these that can fall short of being perfect, is the final one, for which in this case, the artwork is just considered unsuccessful. Here the objective reality is the inner feelings of the artist to be communicated to the externalShow MoreRelatedArt Has Perplexed The Minds Of Both Scholars And Laymen1075 Words   |  5 PagesArt has perplexed the minds of both scholars and laymen for centuries due to the inherent complexity derived from its ability to express creativity, convey meaning, and express emotion – all while coming in various forms subject to interpretation fr om the audience. Rather than debate the definition of art or how it can be used to communicate, I have chosen to focus this essay upon the following question: How does art express emotion? Exploring the connection between art and emotion is an essentialRead MoreThus, Barwell Presents Her Own Sentence Schemata, Arguing1663 Words   |  7 PagesThus, Barwell presents her own sentence schemata, arguing that sentence schema 1-4 are meant to be understood as the following: â€Å"This artwork is well suited to be a product of an expression of E-ness† The recognition of expressive qualities within an art piece – whether it be features of a face in a painting, gestures of a thespian during a theatrical performance, or the timbre of a guitar at a concert – are able to be used by the audience member for their own purposes. Barwell argues that theRead MoreThe Theories Presented By Tolstoy And Bell1493 Words   |  6 PagesTo categorize art by such vague criteria as expression and form would be difficult if it were not for the several prevailing theories presented by Tolstoy and Bell. According to Tolstoy’s theory of expression, something is art only if it successfully does the following. First, it must have been created with the intention of being art and revealed to an audience through a publicly accessible medium, even if the audience is a single individual. These mediums must be physical things such as shapes,Read MoreThe Visual Arts, Technology, And Philosophy1683 Words   |  7 PagesOne may wonder how muc h did The Information Age really contribute to society and, more specifically, the visual arts, technology, and philosophy. The Information Age, as defined by Gloria K. Fiero, is â€Å"dominated by radical changes in the technology of communication and the way we receive and process information† (Fiero, 476). The Information Age paved the way for several brilliant artists to not only share their work, but create their work. Artists, such as Andy Warhol, expressed their artistic abilitiesRead MoreCoping Mechanism: The Pianist1732 Words   |  7 Pagesemotions and reflect on complex experiences in order to begin to process them, which successfully function as coping mechanisms for Szpilman, allowing him to free his mind of burdensome emotions in order to continue on with his life. Emotional expression is an effective means of coping because it actively approaches the stressor rather than avoiding it. Claire Ghetti’s Active Music Engagement with Emotional-Approach Coping to Improve Well-being in Liver and Kidney Transplant Recipients discussesRead MoreLooking at Hugh Hefners Portrait from Various Lenses Essays1159 Words   |  5 PagesCynthia Freeland argued that art communicates significance but there is no one precise hypothetical approach that tells us how to best interpret a work of art. Although there are better interpretations of a piece artwork than others, there is no one-way to interpret a single piece of art. The best interpretations understand the background of the artist while also focusing on the style that the artist uses. The emotions and ideas that come from looking at a piece of art work can come from the artist’sRead MoreThree Basic Theories of Art Criticism1097 Words   |  4 Pagesthree basic theories of art criticism and exp lain each one. Just like everything else in life, art has its critics. Art criticism is the expression used to describe the act of making selective judgments, both positive and negative, about an art piece. Just as art is so diversely expressed and interpreted, those who critique it also have various methods and use various standards when criticizing an art piece. There are many theories critics use to evaluate art but there are three basic theories most commonlyRead MoreSummary : The Glass King And R. Essay1263 Words   |  6 PagesBreAnn Bell Professor Fine Art 101 September 1, 2016 Justifying Collingwood According to the Oxford Dictionary, Art is defined as â€Å"the expression or application of human creative skill and imagination†; but before someone can personally answer the question, â€Å"What is Art†, they must first define the purpose of the art. The purpose of creating and observing art is the same as to why humans read and study literature. Many people study literatures to educate, to tell stories to carry on a legacy, toRead More Art Therapy: Children and its Effectiveness Essay examples856 Words   |  4 Pages What is art? Art is the self-expression of someone of something that shows the hidden or underlying emotions that are found within the unconscious mind. Art has been around for centuries (â€Å"Merriam-Webster†). Normally, art would tell stories of past events which were significant to that culture. This could include things such as hunts and sacrifices to please the gods. As people and humanity started to evolve and become more civilized, art started to transform and take on a new appearance as wellRead MoreBenjamin s Philosophy Of Language And Translation1710 Words   |  7 Pagesthe Jewish mystical tradition. This can be seen in his magna opera: On Language as Such and on the Language of Man (1916) and The Task of the Translator (1923). The former essay deals directly with the linguistic theory; the latter is concerned with the translation theory as a form of art. Benjamin’s inspiration comes from both the death of his close friend Christoph Friedrich Heinle (1894-1914) and Kabbalah. Benjamin’s writing underwent a change after Heinle’s death in 1914. His suicide at nineteen

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins - 986 Words

The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins is about a sixteen year old girl named Katniss and how she needs to fight for her life. The Hunger Games takes place in an arena in the Capitol of Panem. There are 24 tributes, two from each District. The games were created to punish the Twelve Districts for trying to create an uprising against the Capitol. Suzanne Collins book could be compared to the United States and how people obsess with the way they look, discrimination is still occurring, and how the government has abused the power it has over the people. The people in the Capitol of Panem like to look their best, just like the people in the United States like to buy brand named clothes to look their best in. The people in the Capitol aren’t the only ones that have to look nice their food looks so perfectly made. When Katniss is describing the food it sounds as if it’s well arranged (65). Even food plays a part in how the people from the Capitol are obsessed with aesthetics. Pe ople in the United States are also obsessed how food looks because there is people that post food on their social media before eating. Suzanne Collins seems to understand how aesthetics plays a major role in the real world because in her book she captures it very well. There are television shows and magazines that celebrities are being judged because of what they wear, whether they are going to the park or to an awards show. The celebrities are judged on their outfit or makeup. Just like in The Hunger GamesShow MoreRelatedThe Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins3246 Words   |  13 PagesStudy Unit The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins and Steven Galloway’s The Cellist of Sarajevo demonstrates the way in which people are affected by war, and a brutal dictatorship. The authors illustrates the main purpose for writing their novel through the use of imagery, characterization, foreshadowing, flashback, similes, and symbolism. Suzanne Collins and Steven Galloway use imagery and characterization to vividly describe the effects and outcomes of war and dictatorship. Suzanne Collins portrays,Read MoreThe Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins1352 Words   |  6 PagesThe movie or the book the Hunger Games came out with a bang when it first hit theaters or the shelves of the bookstores. It was dubbed as one of the best films or books to read, interestingly enough it was a remake of the stories or myths most people heard when they were younger, but modernized and turned into a collage of all the best roman and Greek stories. Suzanne Collins brilliantly combined the Greek and Roman influences to make the movie/book unforgettable. By using stories from the romansRead MoreThe Hunger Games By Suzanne Collin899 Words   |  4 Pages Suzanne Collin’s â€Å"Hunger Games† seems to be about a dystopian society struggle to become a utopia. However, when the readers read further in to the book or watches the movie one can see that is about all the characters that make use human. As human, we feel the need to build an ethical framework based on our needs for authority rather than tradition. The Capitol in the Hunger Games exploits human needs to keep authority in place. After rising seas and poverty consumed much of the land, the CapitolRead MoreThe Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins1419 Words   |  6 Pagesemotional atmosphere within a dystopian state, there exists an absence of feeling which competes for dominance. Suzanne Collins’ demonstrates this competing apathetic mood in her novel, The Hunger Games, through the citizens of the divided dystopia of Panem. This essay will analyze the origins and influence of apathy on a people and an individual, in both a political and personal sense. Collins’ main argument, that citizens’ facing governmental oppression can either become compliant with apathy, or, insteadRead MoreThe Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins854 Words   |  4 PagesIn a place where poverty is prevalent and a country is ruled b y a tyrannical dictator is it possible for an individual to trust others when their own life is always at stake? In the book The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins, the main character Katniss Everdeen is a survivor. In the novel she is put into an arena to compete against twenty-three other tributes to the death. This is not the only time during which she has to fend for herself; at home she had to care for her family and keep them aliveRead MoreThe Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins710 Words   |  3 Pages‘’The hunger games’’ is a novel written by Suzanne Collins, published in 2008. The genre of the book is thriller/survival, and is written over 27 chapters with 454 pages. In this analysis, I will tell you about how the main character Katniss changes through the novel, and tell you a little about the central characters that plays an important role for her. ‘’The Hunger Games’’, is set in the future in the country Panem, and is about the sixteen-year-old girl, Katniss Everdeen. Panem is divided intoRead MoreThe Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins3514 Words   |  15 PagesThe Hunger Games is a science fiction, dystopian post-apocalyptic series that takes place in a futuristic North American nation called Panem. The film series is based on the novel series of the same title written by Suzanne Collins. Many who watch the films view them as an action-packed adventure series, but The Hunger Games, like many other dystopian films, feature social and political subjects that relate back to past and present culture. Dystopian films like the Hunger Games provide messages,Read MoreThe Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins1487 Words   |  6 PagesMy first text is The Hunger Games which is written by Suzanne Collins and it was written in September 14 2008; was set in the future, around the year 2087. My second text which is 1984 , which is written by George Orwell and was written on Wednesday June 8 1949 and it was set in 1948. There are many themes in the book hunger games such as ‘the inequality between rich and poor’, ‘suffering as environment’ and ‘the importance of appearances’. In 1984 there is also many themes portrayed such as ‘theRead MoreThe Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins2436 Words   |  10 PagesThe Hunger Games is a science fiction and adventure film, based on the novel written by Suzanne Collins, which explores concepts of Marxism and numerous aspects of its principles through the dystopian world of Panem. The Hunger Games follows Marxist theories on bourgeoisie and proletariat class structure as well as capitalist production and the distribution of good. Thelma and Louise, a 1991 film directed by Ridley Scott, is often referred to by critics as â€Å"the ultimate feminist film†. This filmRead MoreThe Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins1237 Wo rds   |  5 PagesImagine you and your family suddenly have to move from Salt Lake City UT all the way to†¦ Antarctica! Of course it isn t realistic for someone to live in Antarctica, but then again, The Hunger Games isn t that much different. Picture you are moving to Antarctica, away from people, friends, extended family, warmth, life, entertainment, happiness! You finally arrive to your isolated, barren planes of snow and ice for a home and realize, BAM! Where is religion in your life? Where will you go for church

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Market Recognition Of Accounting Disclosure -Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Market Recognition Of Accounting Disclosure? Answer: Introducation The company that is available for the purpose of the study is Leighton Holding Limited. The company is listed company in the Australian Stock Exchange and annual report for the financial year ending 31st of December 2016 has been considered. In accordance with the note number three of the annual report of the company for the year ending 31st of December 2016, the impairment has been charged only for the three items. The three items are property plant and equipment and the intangibles assets and the trade debtors. The intangibles asset includes the goodwill and other intangibles on which the impairment has been charged. The property plant and equipment includes land, buildings, leasehold land buildings and improvements and plant and equipment. The trade debtor includes the amount that will be received from the trading vendors to whom the goods have been sold or the services have been provided. The impairment has been grouped under the head of the expenses. The amount of the expenses h as been mentioned in the consolidated statement of profit and loss account. Thus, the company has tested for impairment in respect of the above assets. The procedures that have been adopted by the company have been listed in annual report of the company. At first, in note number fifteen of the annual report of the company, the impairment testing of the goodwill has been detailed. For the purpose of the impairment testing, the cash generating units have been identified and the goodwill is allocated to each of the cash generating unit. The similar has continued with the $120.20 million of allocation of the goodwill to the cash generating units which have been identified in the construction segment. And the remaining amount of goodwill has been allocated to the other segments amounting to $350.70 million. After allocating the same, the recoverable amount has been identified in accordance with the provisions of the financial accounting standard 136 on the impairment of assets. Recoverable amount is calculated as the higher of the value in use and the price that is received on selling the particular item or the asset including the intangibles assets of the company. The value in use is the discounted value of the estimated future cash flow s at present and including the value of the residual at present. For the purpose of the value in use the cash flow projections have been made using the companys business plan and the forecasted projections (AASB, 2016). After intangibles the second assets which have been tested for the impairment is the trade debtor. The trade debtors have been tested for impairment in accordance with the credit risk. It means as to how far the debtors will be able to repay their obligations and met their liabilities. The ageing schedule has been made accordingly and the impairment has been made. The third class of assets that have been impaired is the property plant and equipment and for that the value in use and the net selling price has been identified. The value in use has been calculated on the cash flows based on the business plan. Thereafter, the recoverable amount has been identified and the same has been compared with the carrying amount of the company and then it has been identified that the recoverable amount is higher and accordingly the impairment has not been booked. Yes, the company has recorded the expenditure on impairment in the consolidated statement of profit and loss under the head of the Expenses. The expenses have been detailed in the Note number 3 of the financial statement of the company. The impairment on intangibles has been charged equivalent to the amount of ten million dollar. The amount of 3.5 million dollar has been charged as an impairment of trade debtors. During the year under consideration the company has not charged any impairment on the property plant and equipment. The basic reason for not providing for the impairment is that the company has identified that the recoverable amount of the assets including in the property plant and equipment is more than the carrying amount as on that date and thus no impairment has been charged. Thus, in this manner, the company has charged the impairment expenditures in the financial statements. As per note number fifteen of the financial statements of the company relating to the intangibles of the company, following are the key estimates and the assumptions that have been considered for the purpose of conducting the impairment testing at the balance sheet date: Three cash generating units have been identified for the intangibles of the company. These are construction, mining and mineral processing and services. For all the three cash generating units five key assumptions have been made for determining the recoverable amount of the intangibles. These five key assumptions are market or segment growth, commodity price stability, inflation rates and foreign currency rates, discount rate and growth rate. The first key assumption relates to the forecasts of the economy and how far the group is associated with the conditions that is prevalent in the market. It means whether the group is active and to what extent. The second key assumption relates to the detailed analysis of the forecasts of the price of the products and the adjustment if any made by the group on the basis of the actual experience. The third key assumption relates to the inflation rates and the foreign currency rates. The forecasts that are estimated by the company in their business plan totally depend upon the inflation rates and currency rates. It is because in case there is major effect from foreign currency for instance then the company will have to consider the provision for hedging of the transactions for saving the lost money or the amount. The fourth key assumption relates to the discount rate which the group has adopted for discounting the estimated cash flows for the future years in order to arrive at the present value. The assumption regarding discount rate also includes the risk factor that is present in the market as well as in the country in which the group is operating including the industry also. The fifth key assumption relates to the growth rate. Growth rate is the rate at which the companys net revenue and net worth will be growing on year on year basis. The growth rate is assumed by taking into consideration the market conditions that is prevalent in the organization and the business plan that has been laid down by the company in its annual report for the concerned year. Apart from these assumptions, the company has also included the assumption on the basis of the risk factors like liquidity risk and credit risk and accordingly the provision for the impairment of debtors have been made in case the debtors are not able to pay and correspondingly the credit risk is identified as high. Thus, in this way, the aforementioned key assumptions and estimates have been considered for impairment testing. Yes, I have identified some sort of subjectivity in the impairment testing process. It is because the company has not impaired any part of the property plant and equipment during the year under consideration and has mentioned that the recoverable amount is higher than the carrying amount and hence no impairment expenditure has been charged to statement of the profit and loss account. This subjectivity has overvalued the assets of the company and thus have increased the net worth of the company which otherwise should have been decreased by the amount of the impairment charged if any. The impairment testing that the company has adopted and followed is very interesting. It is because of the five key assumption and the estimates that the company has made in its annual report for the testing of the impairment and mainly the intangibles. Secondly the effect of each of the key assumption have been detailed which have given the more insight of the subject. Lastly, the company has mentioned the three cash generating units and has followed the provisions of the accounting standard only. The new insights that have been gained through the analysis of the annual report are that the key assumptions and the estimates shall be made whenever the asset is being considered for the test of the impairment. Without the proper estimates the impairment testing could not be made in an effective and efficient manner. Australian accounting standard 13 on the Fair Value Measurement prescribes how the fair value shall be measured (AASB, 2016). The fair values have been determined either with the use of the quoted market price or the net present value of the estimated future cash flows that have been made by the company. The company has mentioned the same in the note number 35 of the annual report of the company and accordingly have divided the financial instruments in accordance with the three levels and then the fair value have been measured. Economic reality refers to financial reality in relation to the statement mentioned by IASB meeting head. Every company should bound by the accounting standard issued by IASB and should follow the accounting treatment mentioned in the accounting standard so that their financial statements represent the true and fair view and they can be comparable as economic level and can be used for making decisions (Ely, 2015). The accounting standard for leases before changes suggest recording of operating lease liability as contingent liability instead of actual liability which result in showing of high net worth of the companies and high value of their share price. This fact hurt the economic reality feature of the financial statement as values of the net asset are manipulated by the company. Thus, the belief of the chairperson becomes true in relation to economic reality of the companies and their net worth (Day and Stuart, 2013). The chairperson has mentioned in their speech that the debts shown outside the balance sheet are 66times of the total debts shown by the company in their balance sheet as liability. The major reason for this statement is that the leases are categorized in two major parts as financial lease and operating lease. The operating lease will not find any place in the balance sheet in the accounting treatment as mentioned in accounting standard before changes (Singh, 2011). The companies are majorly entering into operating lease contracts because of this accounting treatment as directed by accounting standard and showing their liabilities towards operating lease as contingent liability which is mentioned as notes to balance sheet. And with the increase in no of such contracts enhances the accumulated liabilities shown as contingent liability which will become around 66 times higher than actual liabilities of the company at a point of time (Ma, 2011). The statement said by Chairperson regarding no playing fields available for Airline companies as they will not take advantage from the loop holes which were available in prior accounting standard for leases of recording the operating leases in financial statements as contingent liability (Singer, 2017). Some of the new airlines will not take advantage of this as taken by major airlines player in the old accounting standard on leases. Also, some of the financial statements of the airline companies have the old treatment and their financial statements cannot be used making comparison and analytical review for taking certain major decisions which can be helpful in making opinion about the airline company or which help in attracting the investors. Thus, airlines companies cannot play with their contracts treatments about lease contracts and manipulate the financial statements (Gross, 2014). The statement mentioned by the chairman of IASB regarding the popularity of the new accounting standard on lease is seems to be true as the one of the foremost reason for the same is that after the changes the companies who are taking advantage from the missing facts in the old standard will not able to take advantage (Lim, 2014). The companies will not able to fooled their investors and management by showing the short term liabilities as contingent liabilities. Second fact is that the cost and man power in terms of professional skills are required for implementation will be high and the company owner will resist for the implementation of the same in the accounting treatment. Also, rental contracts will gain more popularity than the lease contracts. After implementation of new standard other options apart from lease contracts become more lucrative for companies as they can have more net worth in other options (Knubley, 2010; Moore and Nagy, 2013). The head of IASB has said the statement of having better investment decisions and management decisions with the aim of having new developments in the field of the lease accounting and their presentation. The statement has been said because the new changes in accounting standard create more clarity in the presentation of leases in the financial statements of the company. Recognition of Operating lease in the balance sheet face help in clear picture about the actual net assets position of the company which is the major base for investors while taking decisions regarding in investment to be made in the company. Also in the same manner while making the decision of buy or lease by the management of the company, the management is mainly looking for earnings in relation to net assets employed in the company which is accurate and shows actual after the new changes of accounting standard. 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